The Yeh Language

Prepositions with Usage Examples

Yeh Prepositions

This page lists the inventory of Yeh Prepositions, with examples that demonstrate their meanings. For descriptions of the syntax and inflection of prepositional phrases, please refer to the relevant section of the syntax page.

Basic Prepositions

Yeh uses 12 basic prepositions to encode spatial, temporal, and other relationships between their complement and the word they modify. While some of these basic prepositions have a narrow definition, most vary in meaning, depending on the context they apear in. The examples below demonstrate the different ways each preposition can be used, and which relationships they can express.

ok - at, to, towards, social relationships
trë́no ók-o oikáte nó=më walk to-INAN dwelling 1=A "I walk towards the house."
tséng-em no ók-o íhbitsai table-POSSD 1 at-INAN festival "my table at the festival"
tswúmëny ók-e no friend to-AN 1 "a friend to me"
krav - from, produced by, off of, partitive. When the complement is quantified, can express "consisting of."
trë́no nó=më kráv-o oikáte ók-o pri walk 1=A from-INAN dwelling to-INAN river "I walk from the house to the river."
tswáhna nó=më kentsói kráv-o pri drink 1=A water from-INAN river "I drink water from the river."
ámtra kráv-e Kamú book from-AN Camus "the book by Camus"
jah kráv-o báisiku ye fall from-INAN bicycle 3 "They fell off of the bike."
jong kráv-o báhwo nga bounce from-INAN partition 3.INAN "It bounced off of the wall."
hwam kráv-e aufára esá flock from-AN bird some "a flock of birds"
ye rah kráv-e aufára 3 two from-AN bird "Two of the birds"
nyën - in, within, inalienable posession, part to whole relationships, at the time of or during
tseng nyë́n-o oikáte table in-INAN dwelling "the table in the house"
trë́no yé=më nyë́n-o íkong ványe walk 3=A in-INAN tree many "They walk in the woods."
ótoma nyë́n-o ausóntsi emrúna=më sleep in-INAN winter bear=A "The bear sleeps during winter."
gamái nyë́n-o oikáte door in-INAN dwelling "The door of the house"
hoim nyë́n-e im mouth in-AN 2 "your mouth"
nyë́n-o kim-áiro-nem no in-INAN sort-NMLZ-POSSD 1 "on my list"
kye / kwo - on, above, atop or over
srah kwo tseng pen on.INAN desk "the pen on the desk"
kwo íkong atop.INAN tree "atop the tree"
sye kwo oikáte aufára=më fly over.INAN dwelling bird=A "The bird flies over the house."
hwam kwo tsenpéng could over.INAN mountain "the cloud over the mountain"
tor - attached or adhered to, hooked through, on the subject of
ivíseh tór-o báhwo picture partition "the picture on the wall"
otánga tór-o ángorih fish fishhook "the fish on the hook"
simángte tór-o báisiku basket bicycle "the basket attached to the bike"
ámtra tór-o báisiku book about-INAN bicycle "a book about bicycles"
yekúng tór-o báisiku situation about-INAN bicycle "the bicycle situation"
prónyim - in front of, before the time of
íkong prónyim-o oikáte tree in.front.of-INAN dwelling "the tree in front of the house"
jo rah prónyim-o íhbitsai day two in.front.of-INAN festival "two days before the festival"
jo tómva prónyim-o day three in.front.of-INAN "three days ago"
trum - behind, after the time of
íkong trúm-o oikáte tree behind-INAN dwelling " the tree behind the house"
jo rah trúm-o íhbitsai day two behind-INAN festival "two days after the festival"
jo tómva trúm-o day three behind-INAN "three days from now"
swak - in the vicinity of, close in time to, along with, by use of
swák-o pri near-INAN river "by the river"
swák-o ausóntsi near-INAN winter "nearly winter"
hwë ók-o íhbitsai no=më swák-e tswúmëny go to-INAN festival 1=A with-AN friend "I went to the festival with a friend."
kóvëh yé=më oi swák-o kínyo cut 3=A it with blade "They cut it with a blade."
ënsóim - enclosed by
gamái ënsóim-o oikáte door inside-INAN dwelling "the door in the house"
oikáte ënsóim-o kentsói dwelling inside-INAN water "the house underwater"
komém - under, beneath
komém-o tseng under-INAN table "under the table"
kuványim - across
kuványim-o pri across-INAN river "across the river"
mek - in the manner of, similar to, compared to
sye mék-e aufára fly as-AN bird "fly like a bird"
kyurói goh mék-o jomún light more than-INAN sun "brighter than the sun"

Complex Prepositions

Relationships that cannot be expressed by a basic preposition alone can often be acheived with the combination of prepositions and other words. Over time, such combinations may begin to act as one unit as their meanings grow more fossilized. Combinations that reach this stage are known as "complex prepositions." The following is a non-exhaustive list of complex prepositions in Yeh.

ók-o ngivóh nyën - between
ók-o ngivóh nyë́n-o íkong rah at-INAN middle in-INAN tree two "between the two trees"
soi goh mek - beyond, past or further than
soi goh mék-o tsenpéng far more than-INAN mountain "beyond the mountains"
mék-o hitúnyu tor - encircling, wrapped around
aufára mék-o hitúnyu tor-o krúnyu bird as-INAN snare corpse "a bird encircling a corpse"
jepóng mék-o hitúnyu tor-o oikáte fence as-INAN snare dwelling "the fence around the house"

Stacked Prepositions

In Yeh, several prepositions may be used in sequence to convey additional meanings not possible with just one.

ok + ënsóim - into
ók-o ënsóim-o simángte to-INAN basket "into the basket"
krav + komém - from under
kráv-o komém-o tseng from-INAN under-INAN table "from under the table"
krav + kye / kwo - from above
jah oi kráv-o kwo fall 3.INAN from-INAN over-INAN "It fell from above."

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