The Yeh Language

Derivational Operations

Derivational Affixes

Yeh makes use of prefixes and suffixes that combine with existing words to create new ones. There are 10 such derivational affixes in Yeh.

kose-

Meaning
One who ___. (Agent nominalizer)
Variations
kosey- (when the base begins in e,ë,a,o, or u), kosew- (when the base begins in i)
Added To
Verbs
Forms
Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
ngëh (to say / speak) kosengë́h (speaker)
trë́no (to walk) kosetrë́no (pedestrian, hiker)

-iro

Meaning
The process, state, or result of ___. (Abstract nominalizer)
Variations
-ro (when base ends with i) -airo (when base ends in e or a) -oiro (when base ends in o) -yiro (when base ends in another vowel)
Added To
Verbs, Adjectives
Forms
Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
kíme (to sort) kimáiro (list)
tong (good) tóngiro (goodness)

-mento

Meaning
(Ordinal-forming suffix)
Variations
None
Added To
Numerals
Forms
Adjectives

Examples:

Base Derived Word
ítse (eleven) ítsemento (eleventh)

san-

Meaning
Against ___. Opposite or counterpart of ___.
Variations
sany- (when the base begins with ng) sa- (when the base begins with ny)
Added To
Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives
Forms
Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives

Examples:

Base Derived Word
okénge (war) sánokenge (antiwar)
króko (fight) sánkroko (retaliate)
esánto (understanding gained through experience, wisdom) sanesánto (ignorance, worsened through experience, antiwisdom)

ombot-

Meaning
Make ___. Make into ___. Cause to resemble ___. (Causative verb-forming prefix)
Variations
ombo- (when base begins with a consonant)
Added To
Nouns and Adjectives
Forms
Verbs

Examples:

Base Derived Word
tswáhna (water) ombotswáhna (melt, liquify)
kyurói (light / white) ombokyurói (brighten)
ója (big / large) ombotója (enlarge)

tre-

Meaning
Able to be ___. Worthy to be ___. Abundant in ___.
Variations
tr- (when base is vowel-initial)
Added To
Nouns and Verbs
Forms
Adjectives

Examples:

Base Derived Word
hwánge (to eat) tréhwange (edible)
báhna (problem) trebáhna (troublesome)
tswúmëny (friend) tretswumë́ny (good to befriend)

mejak-

Meaning
Place of or for ___.
Variations
meja- (when base begins with a consonant)
Added To
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
Forms
Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
ámtra (book) mejakámtra (library)
tyéfre (to tend to crops, to cultivate) mejatyéfre (green house)

-ih

Meaning
A smaller or lesser form of ___. (Diminutive-forming suffix)
Variations
-yih (when the base ends in u, o, ë, or a) -wih (when the base ends in e)
Added To
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
Forms
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
pri (river) priyíh (stream)
kóimo (city) koimoyíh (small city)
báhna (problem) bahnayíh (annoyance)

-ku

Meaning
A larger or greater form of ___. (Augmentative) An extreme degree of ___. (Superlative) An excess of ___. A higher level of ___.
Variations
None
Added To
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
Forms
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
hwánge (to eat) hwángeku (overeat)
tsah (unclean) tsáhku (filthy, disgusting)
kóimo (city) kóimoku (supercity / megalopolis)

-ngau

Meaning
A makeshift replacement of ___. An inferior knockoff of ___.
Variations
-au (when the base ends in ng), -nyau (when the base ends in n or ny)
Added To
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
Forms
Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns

Examples:

Base Derived Word
óiwawa (subject to chance, unpredictable) oiwawangáu (pseudorandom)
kepón (path, circuit trace) keponyáu (bodge wire)

Affixes and Stess

When certain affixes are added, the stressed syllable remains the same as what it was in the base word. However, some affixes cause the stress of the word to be shifted to another syllable, under certain conditions. Stress shifting affixes include:

When these affixes are added to the base, the Yeh stress rule is reapplied to the resulting word (Stress falls on the right-most heavy syllable, or else, the initial syllable). This can sometimes result in stress shifting to a part of the affix, or it can have no effect.

Affixes and Orthography

Most affixes are realized as one of several phonetic variants, depending on certain conditions. Only some of these variants are reflected in the Yeh writing system. In general, variants that result from Yeh's sound change rules (inserting [j] or [w] between adjacent vowels, coalescence of adjacent nasals) are not distinguished from their canonical form in the writing system, whereas other variants are distinguished.

This does not apply to the romanization of Yeh, which may distinguish the phonetic variants of these affixes.

Written Example

Note that the consonant [j] in priyih is spoken, but not indicated in written form:

priyih, spelled priih

Derivational Reduplication

Coming soon.

Stress Derivation

Coming soon.

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